1914 – July Footnotes

[1] Calomel – mercurous chloride, a white powder formerly used as a purgative.

[2] Russian salad is a piquant American salad consisting of a dressing of mayonnaise, ketchup, and other ingredients. It is combined with cold cooked vegetables. Russian dressing is mentioned as early as 1900 in U.S. sources. A mayonnaise-based recipe is documented in 1914.

[3] George Washington’s crossing of the Delaware River, which occurred on the night of December 25–26, 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, was the first move in a surprise attack organized by George Washington against Hessian (German auxilaries in service of the British) forces in Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26. Planned in partial secrecy, Washington led a column of Continental Army troops across the icy Delaware River in a logistically challenging and dangerous operation.

[4] Francis Beverley Biddle (1886 – 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who was Attorney General of the United States during World War II and who served as the primary American judge during the postwar Nuremberg trials. He also served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.

[5] On March 23rd, 1916, Minneapolis, on a voyage from Marseille to Alexandria carrying 60 tons horse fodder, was torpedoed by the German submarine U-35 (Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière), 195 miles of E1/2N Malta. 12 persons were lost. She was under the command of Captain F. O. Hasker at the time of her loss.

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